Geological Surveys by Ships in the Indian Ocean
Contents: Foreword. Preface. 1. Pre-independence period (1871-1946). 2. Post-independence (1947-1959). 3. International Indian Ocean expedition (II0E, 1960-65). 4. Post-international Indian Ocean expedition (II0E) (1965-1982). 5. Acquisition of research vessels/coastal research launches (1983-84). 6. Post-acquisition of research vessels surveys (after, 1983). 7. Specific and strategic surveys on board/R V Samudra Manthan, R V Samudra Kaustubh and R V Samudra Shaudhikama, R V Gaveshani, ORV Sagar Kanya, A A Sidorenko within EEZ of India. 8. Survey beyond exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India and in deep Indian Ocean. 9. Southern Ocean. 10. Acquisition of coastal research launches, research vessels/replacement vessels after 1983-84. 11. References. The Book describes the events of the geoscientific surveys and their findings in the Indian Ocean since 1871 when for the first time, Dr J. Wood- Mason of Indian Museum collected data from Andaman Sea on board S.S. Undaunted. The pre-independence surveys were restricted to bathymetry of sea and demarcation of mud volcanoes, Swatch of No Ground of Ganges- Brahmaputra, phosphatic and barium nodules in the Bay of Bengal and mudflats off Travancore (Kerala) coast. It highlights the introduction of post- independence marine geology course in Andhra University in the year 1952; International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE, 1960-65); creation of Marine Geology Unit in the Geological Survey of India in August, 1965 and National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research in January, 1966; geoscientific activities in the absence of research vessels by hiring vessels, fishing/ mechanised boats and participating in the Indian Naval Hydrographic vessels; laboratory studies of ferro-manganese nodules collected during IIOE; compilation of "Bottom sediment map of the seas bordering India" by GSI and presentation of the same in the International Geological Congress (IGC) held at Montreal (Canada) in the year 1972; acquisition of research vessels (Gaveshani in December, 1975; Samudra Manthan in the June, 1983; Sagar Kanya in June, 1983; Samudra Kaustubh and Samudra Shaudhikama in September, 1984).