Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Contents: Preface - Basics of Experimental Pharmacology. 1. Introduction to experimental pharmacology. 2. Commonly used instruments in experimental pharmacology. 3. Commonly used laboratory animals in experimental – pharmacology. 4. CPCSEA guidelines for laboratory animal facility. 5. Handling and restraint of small laboratory animals. 6. Routes of drug administration in laboratory animals. 7. Techniques of blood collection in laboratory animals. 8. Anaesthetics used in experim Experiments on Isolated Preparations (Ex-Vivo). 10. Physiological salt solutions (PSS) used in isolated tissue –preparation. 11. Procedure for recording isolated tissue responses. 12. Dose-response curve (DRC) of acetylcholine using frog – rectus abdominis muscle. 13. Effect of physostigmine on DRC of acetylcholine using frog –rectus abdominis muscle. 14. Effect of atropine on DRC of acetylcholine using rat ileum. 15. Effect of spasmogens and spasmolytics on rabbit jejunum/Effect of drugs on gastrointestinal motility. 16. Effect of agonist and antagonists on guinea pig ileum. 17. Effect of saline purgative on frog intestine. 18. Determination of PA2 value of prazosin using rat –anococcygeus muscle. 19. Determination of PD2 value using guinea pig ileum –preparation. 20. Effect of drugs on isolated frog heart preparation –ental pharmacology. 9. Techniques of euthanasia used in experimental –pharmacology-Bioassays. 21. Introduction to bioassay. 22. Bioassay of histamine using guinea pig ileum by matching –method. 23. Bioassay of oxytocin using rat uterine horn by interpolation method. 24. Bioassay of serotonin using rat fundus strip by three-point – method. 25. Bioassay of acetylcholine using rat ileum by four-point –method. 26. Bioassay of atropine using guinea pig ileum by –interpolation method. 27. Bioassay of d-tubocurarine by rabbit head-drop method. 28. Bioassay of digitalis by guinea pig cardiac arrest method. 29. Bioassay of insulin by rabbit hypoglycemic effect method. 30. Bioassay of heparin sodium by sheep blood coagulation method In-Vivo Experiments in Animals. 31. Effect of drugs (miotics, mydriatics and local anaesthetics) on rabbit eye. 32. Effect of drugs on ciliary motility of frog oesophagus. 33. Skeletal muscle relaxant property of drug using rota-rod – apparatus. 34. Skeletal muscle relaxant property of drug using hanging wire test. 35. Local anaesthetic activity of drugs by different methods. 36. Effect of drugs on locomotor activity in mice using actophotometer. 37. Analgesic activity of drugs using central and peripheral methods. 38. Anti-inflammatory activity of drugs using carrageenan induced paw-oedema model. 39. Anti-ulcer activity of a drug using pylorus ligated (SHAY) rat model. 40. Anti-ulcer activity of a drug using NSAIDS induced ulcer model. 41. Effect of sulfasalazin on indomethacin-induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats. 42. Anti-allergic activity by mast cell stabilization assay. 43. Effect of finasteride on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. 44. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin in rabbits. This book provides fundamental knowledge of practical aspects of the experimental pharmacology right from laboratory animals handling and tissue mounting to practical implications of various important complex experimental procedures. This book is prepared using simple language and tried to explain the experiment with a model data of observation, calculation, graph and result for better clarity to carry out the experiments in animals or understand the experimental pharmacological techniques by observing the simulated experiments. Exact simulation of real animal experiments on a computer is not easy because the biological responses are very complex. Moreover, imagination of experimental outcome and acquiring the skill of handson experiment is not satisfactorily learned by observing the effect of the drug in simulated experiments. This book helps to reduce the gap between hands-on experiments in animal and simulated experiments in pharmacology. The experimental methodology and experimental data explained in this book are designed on the basis of robust scientific materials and personal experience in hands-on experiments under the guidance of eminent personalities. This book will be helpful for graduates and postgraduates related to pharmacology, trainees, research workers during their day-to-day activities including allied health discipline and scientists in industrial drug discovery set-up and CRO. Several simple and newer experimental models have been incorporated which will help the students to engage in drug discovery activities in future. Besides this, several important points have been discussed e.g. ethics of animal experimentation, care and handling of experimental animals, preparation of solutions, tissue mounting for in vitro studies etc.